Tips & Tricks


Best Keyboard Shortcuts


Getting used to using your keyboard exclusively and leaving your mouse behind will make you much more efficient at performing any task on any Windows system.
I use the following keyboard shortcuts every day:

Windows key + R = Run menu

Type the following commands in your Run Box (Windows Key + R) or Start menu--> Run
cmd = Command Prompt
iexplore + "web address" = Internet Explorer
compmgmt.msc = Computer Management
dhcpmgmt.msc = DHCP Management
dnsmgmt.msc = DNS Management
services.msc = Services
eventvwr = Event Viewer
dsa.msc = Active Directory Users and Computers
dssite.msc = Active Directory Sites and Services
devmgmt.msc = Device Manager
msinfo32 = System Information
cleanmgr = Disk Cleanup
ntbackup = Backup or Restore Wizard (Windows Backup Utility)
mmc = Microsoft Management Console
excel = Microsoft Excel (If Installed)
msaccess = Microsoft Access (If Installed)
powerpnt = Microsoft PowerPoint (If Installed)
winword = Microsoft Word (If Installed)
frontpg = Microsoft FrontPage (If Installed)
notepad = Notepad
wordpad = WordPad
calc = Calculator
msmsgs = Windows Messenger
mspaint = Microsoft Paint
wmplayer = Windows Media Player
rstrui = System Restore
netscp6 = Netscape 6.x
netscp = Netscape 7.x
netscape = Netscape 4.x
control = Opens the Control Panel
control printers = Opens the Printers Dialog

Also don't forget about the "Right-click" key next to the right Windows key on your keyboard. Using the arrows and that key can get just about anything done once you've opened up any program.

Keyboard Shortcuts

[Alt] key and [Esc]  key Switch between running applications

[Alt] and letter Select menu item by underlined letter

[Ctrl] and [Esc] Open Program Menu

[Ctrl] and [F4] Close active document or group windows (does not work with some applications)

[Alt] and [F4] Quit active application or close current window

[Alt] and [-] Open Control menu for active document

[Ctrl] Left., Right. arrow Move cursor forward or back one word

[Ctrl] Up, Down arrow Move cursor forward or back one paragraph

[F1] Open Help for active application

Windows+M Minimize all open windows

Shift+Windows+M Undo minimize all open windows

Windows+F1 Open Windows Help

Windows+Tab Cycle through the Taskbar buttons

Windows+Break Open the System Properties dialog box

Accessibility  shortcuts

Right SHIFT for eight seconds........ Switch FilterKeys on and off.

Left ALT +left SHIFT +PRINT SCREEN....... Switch High Contrast on and off.

Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK....... Switch MouseKeys on and off.

SHIFT....... five times Switch StickyKeys on and off.

NUM LOCK...... for five seconds Switch ToggleKeys on and off.

Explorer shortcuts

END....... Display the bottom of the active window.

HOME....... Display the top of the active window.

NUM LOCK+ASTERISK....... on numeric keypad (*) Display all subfolders under the selected folder.

NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN....... on numeric keypad (+) Display the contents of the selected folder.

NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN....... on numeric keypad (-) Collapse the selected folder.

LEFT ARROW...... Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder.

RIGHT ARROW....... Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder.

Internet browser

type in u're adress "google", then press [Right CTRL] and [Enter]
add www. and .com to word and go to it

For Windows XP:
Windows key + E = Explorer

ALT + Tab = Switch between windows

ALT, Space, X = Maximize window

CTRL + Shift + Esc = Task Manager

Windows key + Break = System properties

Windows key + F = Search

Windows key + D = Hide/Display all windows

CTRL + C = copy

CTRL + X = cut

CTRL + V = paste

Copy. CTRL+C
Paste. CTRL+V
Undo. CTRL+Z
Delete. DELETE
Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. SHIFT+DELETE
Copy selected item. CTRL while dragging an item
Create shortcut to selected item. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item
Rename selected item. F2
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. CTRL+UP ARROW
Highlight a block of text. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. SHIFT with any of the arrow keys
Select all. CTRL+A
Search for a file or folder. F3
View properties for the selected item. ALT+ENTER
Close the active item, or quit the active program. ALT+F4
Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. CTRL+F4
Switch between open items. ALT+TAB
Cycle through items in the order they were opened. ALT+ESC
Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. F6
Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. F4
Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. SHIFT+F10
Display the System menu for the active window. ALT+SPACEBAR
Display the Start menu. CTRL+ESC
Display the corresponding menu. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name
Carry out the corresponding command. Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu
Activate the menu bar in the active program. F10
Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. RIGHT ARROW
Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. LEFT ARROW
Refresh the active window. F5
View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. BACKSPACE
Cancel the current task. ESC
SHIFT when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

Use these keyboard shortcuts for dialog boxes:

To Press
Move forward through tabs. CTRL+TAB
Move backward through tabs. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB
Move forward through options. TAB
Move backward through options. SHIFT+TAB
Carry out the corresponding command or select the corresponding option. ALT+Underlined letter
Carry out the command for the active option or button. ENTER
Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box. SPACEBAR
Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons. Arrow keys
Display Help. F1
Display the items in the active list. F4
Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box. BACKSPACE

If you have a Microsoft Natural Keyboard, or any other compatible keyboard that includes the Windows logo key and the Application key , you can use these keyboard shortcuts:

Display or hide the Start menu. WIN Key
Display the System Properties dialog box. WIN Key+BREAK
Show the desktop. WIN Key+D
Minimize all windows. WIN Key+M
Restores minimized windows. WIN Key+Shift+M
Open My Computer. WIN Key+E
Search for a file or folder. WIN Key+F
Search for computers. CTRL+WIN Key+F
Display Windows Help. WIN Key+F1
Lock your computer if you are connected to a network domain, or switch users if you are not connected to a network domain. WIN Key+ L
Open the Run dialog box. WIN Key+R
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

accessibility keyboard shortcuts:

Switch FilterKeys on and off. Right SHIFT for eight seconds
Switch High Contrast on and off. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN
Switch MouseKeys on and off. Left ALT +left SHIFT +NUM LOCK
Switch StickyKeys on and off. SHIFT five times
Switch ToggleKeys on and off. NUM LOCK for five seconds
Open Utility Manager. WIN Key+U

shortcuts you can use with Windows Explorer:

Display the bottom of the active window. END
Display the top of the active window. HOME
Display all subfolders under the selected folder. NUM LOCK+ASTERISK on numeric keypad (*)
Display the contents of the selected folder. NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN on numeric keypad (+)
Collapse the selected folder. NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN on numeric keypad (-)
Collapse current selection if it's expanded, or select parent folder. LEFT ARROW
Display current selection if it's collapsed, or select first subfolder. RIGHT ARROW

Read more

How To See Hidden Files Through Command


How To See Hidden Files Through Command

If you are looking for any possible hidden files on your computer, 
you can use this simple command to help find some.

Start menu--> Run--> Type   cmd  press Enter. or 
 windows key+R
At command prompt just type

  dir /ah  (Root Of Directory /ah)

If the list is too long u can use
dir /ah/p/w.  (Root of File or Folder /ah/p/w)


I hope this tip is very Useful for see Hidden files in your system..
please share this tip through the social networks.. 

Read more

Hide Any Drive With Command


Hide Any Drive With Command
Perform the given steps to hide your system data partition: 

To enable this feature, you will need to be logged into your computer with administrative rights. 

1. Start menu--> Run--> cmd --> ok
2. type "diskpart" in command prompt and press enter.

3. type "list volume" and press enter.
4. This will open your complete hard disk information about all disk drives.

Now first select the volume that you want to hide, for example,

5. type "select volume 4" to select the drive F.
6. You might change volume 4 to your desire drive that you wants to hide.
After loading volume, Type "remove letter F"

8. It will hide your F: drive from my computer.

Now exit from command prompt and open My Computer to verify drives. 


But next time, when you want to unhide the F drive, just run assign drive F command after loading volume 4.

9. Type"assign letter f" to restore the drive F.
10. This will unhidden the drive.
11. See the above attached Image.

Read more

Get Whole Computer Information Without External Software


Get Whole Computer Information Without External Software
1. Start menu--> Run--> dxdiag and press enter or click Ok.
2. DirectX Diagnostic Tool window is opened now on your screen.

3. You see in the center of window Your system information is given in detailed.

The System tab provides system information about your computer and specifies the version of DirectX that is installed on your computer. 

The Display tab lists your current display settings, and allows you to disable DirectDraw, Direct3D, and AGP Texture Acceleration. This tab also allows testing of DirectDraw and Direct3D. Passing these tests indicates that the DirectX Graphics runtime files are installed and operating correctly. It is not a comprehensive test of your computer's display hardware. 

The Sound tab displays your current sound settings, and enables you to test DirectSound. The Sound tab can tell you if your audio driver is "Signed" - which indicates that it has passed Microsoft's Windows Hardware Quality Labs testing regimen. 

The Input tab lists the input devices connected to your computer and the input drivers installed on your computer. 

The Network tab lists the registered DirectPlay Service Providers. These are the connection methods that DirectPlay will operate across. A registry problem here can normally be resolved by reinstalling DirectX.  

4.  You just click on these buttons to see the hardware info and it's drivers are given.

5. You also save this all information in to your computer by clicking Save All Information Button in the right side of bottom of the window.

Read more

How to Hide drive letters in My Computer in XP !


In the following tutorial, I explain how to hide a drive or drive letter from being displayed in My Computer. This is useful if you don't want just any average user to be able to easily detect, access and navigate a hard disk that is attached to your system. Note that the drive can still be accessed from explorer by typing in the drive letter. Because we are going to be editing the system registry to hide the drive letter you should proceed with caution, as it is possible to do irreversible damage to your system if you make a mistake.

Have you ever needed to hide a drive on a system? For example, suppose you manage a system shared by multiple users in a public area, and you keep diagnostic and management applications on a separate drive.

Wouldn't it be nice to be able to hide that drive from users to prevent any mischievous exploration? You can do so with a simple registry edit.

Follow these steps:

  1. Click Start -> Run--> type regedit in the box and click OK
  2. Navigate to:
  3. HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\
  4. From the menu, navigate to Edit -> New -> DWORD Value
  5. Name the New Value NoDrives
  6. Next, Right click NoDrives and select Modify, now check the Decimal option and under Value Data enter a decimal value for the drive you would like to hide. For example to hide C you would enter 4. See the list below for more values:
    • A=1
    • B=2
    • C=4
    • D=8
    • E=16
    • F=32
    • G=64
    • H=128
    • I=256
  7. Click OK once finished and restart your PC to verify the drive letter is no longer displayed

You must restart the system or log out of Windows XP in order for the change to take effect.

To hide other drive letters that we didn't list, follow the pattern of doubling the number for each successive drive. For example, drive G: would have a value of 64.

To hide multiple drives, add the values together. For example, to hide drives A: and B:, use a value of 3. If you want to hide all drive letters, use a value of 67108864.

Note: You can delete the key that was created to display the drive again.
 and Editing the registry is risky, so be sure you have a verified backup before making any changes.
Map Drives in Windows XP!
If you're using Windows file sharing, you probably know that you can access files on other machines not just by browsing your Network Places but by entering UNC (Universal [or Uniform] Naming Convention) names like this:


But UNC names can become cumbersome. Instead, map a network location to a drive letter: Replace the UNC name above with something like P:tofile.txt, where P: refers to a directory on another machine.

Windows offers a number of ways to map network drives. From a command prompt (or a batch file invoked at start-up), you can type, using the example above, NET USE P: \machinenamesharenamepath. You can also go to Start | My Network Places, right-click, choose Map Network Drive, and browse to a location. Or click on the Tools menu in the standard Windows toolbar and select Map Network Drive.
Turn Off File Sharing!
If you are taking your notebook on the road and expect to take advantage of a hot spot or two along the way, your personal files could be at risk. To protect them, make sure to turn file sharing off on your notebook before logging on to the public network. Here's how: In Windows 98 or ME, open the Network applet from the Control Panel, click on the File and Printer Sharing button, and uncheck both. Windows 2000 or XP users should right-click on Network Neighborhood and choose Properties. Find the network card (labeled Local Area Connection by default), right-click on it, and select Properties. Uncheck File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks. Repeat for additional network adapters.

Read more

How To Hide Text In Notepad.


How To Hide Text In Notepad.

1.  Start–>Run and Type cmd
2. Type cd.. to move to C:\> drive or Type cd  desktop to move to your desktop.

      preview show the image below  here..

3. Type the below code in your command prompt
notepad Filename.txt:hidden

4. Write some data and save(Ctrl+S) the file.

5. Browse to the file location and Open filename.txt you cannot see any data in the file.

6. To retrieve the hidden data open command prompt and type the same command.
notepad Filename.txt:hidden   

that's it..over, hope this helpful..

Read more

Internet Sharing Connection


Internet Sharing Connection
To enable Internet Connection Sharing on a network connection:

1. Open Network Connections.

2. Click the dial-up, local area network, PPPoE, or VPN connection you want to share, and then, under Network Tasks, click Change settings of this connection.

3. On the Advanced tab, select the Allow other network users to connect through this computer's Internet connection check box.

4. If you want this connection to dial automatically when another computer on your home or small office network attempts to access external resources, select the Establish a dial-up connection whenever a computer on my network attempts to access the Internet check box.

5. If you want other network users to enable or disable the shared Internet connection, select the Allow other network users to control or disable the shared Internet connection check box.

6. Under Internet Connection Sharing, in Home networking connection, select any adapter that connects the computer sharing its Internet connection to the other computers on your network.


Read more

Overview of windows seven(7) Secrets


Microsoft's seventh version of operating system - Windows 7 is waiting to hit the store shelves. Well, the PDC attendees are already using Windows 7, rest of the Windows buffs might be working on the leaks through torrents. With so much hype, expectations from Windows 7 must be sky high, especially, after the visaster. Already the sites and blogs are flodded with tips, and tricks on Windows 7. We did our part with the coolest hacks for Windows 7. Now that there are heaps of fundas on Windows 7 on the web it's a wild-goose chase filtering the most useful tips. We worked extensively to bring you the top 10 Windows 7 tricks, tips and secret.

1. System Requirements

Well, we include this on the top of our list as most people know about the Winddows 7 system requirements, but there's a lot of fuss surrounding it. We got the genuine details of the minimum requirements for Windows 7 if you are still in a fix.
CPU: 1 GHz+ 32 or 64-Bit processor
RAM: 1 GB for 32-Bit, 2 GB for 64-Bit
GPU: 128 MB DirectX 9, WDDM 1.0 Compatible Video Card
HDD: 15 GB for 32-Bit, 20 GB for 64-Bit
DX9 Capable sound card
1024×768 or better capable screen
Keyboard + Mouse
DVD Drive
An internet connection for updates and activation.
Above all, Windows 7 is far less of a resource hungry than its predecessor Windows Vista.

2. A Welcome Gesture

Most innovative part of the latest Microsoft OS is that it supports touchscreen devices. Windows 7 incorporates a gesture-based system that allows you to navigate the desktop with a stylus or even your finger. Voila! A gesture also works with a mouse. Let me tell you in the new system a new program-specific menu that replaces the right-click context menu. Instead of using right-clicking the Taskbar icon to access the Jump List you can hold the left-click and drag upwards to smoothly get it. For more you can also click and drag down in the Internet Explorer address bar to view the browsing history and related favorite bookmarks. Is it real touchy, well can wait and watch. By the time you can also refer to our article on WIndows 7 Touch Pack.

3. Dreamscenes for Windows 7

In order to use DreamScenes you need to use this hack. The DreamScene installation hack is an executable file, which copies the needed DreamScene files and fuses them with the right registry keys and posts. Here are are the steps you need to follow
Step1: Download and unpack Windows7-DreamScene
Step2: Run Windows7-DreamScene.exe as administrator. Install and activate Windows DreamScene for Windows 7. The program willl automaticly restart explorer.
Step3: This will create a new Windows DreamScene folder in : % Windir% \ Web \ folder. Place the video file that you would like as a DreamScene background
Now for using the videoclips (in. WMV or. MPG) as DreamScenes animated background, you need to right click on the video media file that you wanna select and pick "Use as desktop background"

4. Understanding System Restore

Well, playing with System Restore was a like a trial and error test in the earlier versions of Windows. Now way can you tell which application or driver it might affect.
With Windows 7 its not the same, as it informs you about all the programs and drivers will be deleted or recovered by selecting this restore point. To do that you need to follow this
Step 1: Right-click Computer, select Properties > System Protection > System Restore > Next. Finally select the restore point you'd wanna use.
Step 2: Click the new button to Scan for affected programs and Windows will tell you about the programs and drivers that would be deleted or recovered by selecting this restore point.

5. Get a power efficiency report

This one's especially for the laptop users gasping for their battery life. Well, WIndows 7 is equipped to provide you comprehensive information about the power consumption. You can use this feature to increase your laptop's battery life as well as performance. Here's how to get to it
Step 1: Type cmd in the Start search to open the command prompt
Step 2: When it opens right-click it and choose Run as administrator
Step 3: Type in powercfg -energy in the command line and hit Enter
Windows 7 will scan your system suggesting ways to improve power efficiency. To find the results you must follow the path. Typically its in the System32 folder.

6. Track Your Actions with Problem Steps Recorder

A major part of upgrades in Windows 7 has been implemented based on user feedback. For more the developers have built in a diagnostic tool called Problem Steps Recorder. The recorder has been designed to combine screen capture with mouse tracking to record the users actions.
To launch this program- in the Start Menu, type psr.exe in the search field
Once launched, hit the Record Button and the application will start tracking your mouse and keyboard activities taking corresponding screenshots for each new action. The session gets saved as a HTML slide show that can be played to recreate the steps. The exciting part of it is that you can add comments and annotations.
This could be a great piece of tool to create tutorials, especially for novice users.

7. Using Virtual Hard disk files

Windows 7 allows you to create and manage virtual hard disks files as as if they were real. Using this feature you'll be able to use a live Windows installation on the virtual disk without the need to boot the virtual Computer.
In order to create a virtual disk follow these steps
Step 1: Press the Windows Key, right-click on Computer. Go to Manage > Disk Management > Action > Create VHD. Specify the location and size of your virtual hard disk file.
Step 2: Now to attach the virtual disk files. Press the Windows Key, right-click on Computer. Go to Manage > Disk Management > Action > Attach VHD. Specify the location and whether it's read only or not.
Step 3: Again to initialize a virtual hard disk, follow the step 2 and specify the location, then click Ok. Next right click on the virtual disk and click on Initialize Disk.
Step 4: Choose the partition style that you wanna use and then right-click on the unallocated space. Next click the New Simple Volume and follow the rest of instructions in the wizard.
You would see a new drive appear in the Windows Explorer that you can use as a real partition.

8. Disable smart window arrangement

Windows 7 uses its own intelligence to arrange your windows. For an example, when you drag a window to the top of the screen it automatically maximizes. But if your wanna master Windows 7 at your behest, you need to disable this arrangement. Let's see how to go about it
Step 1: In the Start Search type regedit to edit the registry
Step 2: Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop
Step 3: Set WindowArrangementActive value to 0, and reboot
Now your windows will behave as in the earlier versions.

9 . Burning Disk in a jiffy

This is probably the most hyped feature that adds to your ease of using Windows 7. Windows 7 now features a DVD and CD ISO burning software. Just with a double click on an image file you will see Windows burn the image to a blank DVD or CD. Although a barebone application but it's quite handy.

10. Create a System Repair Disc

At times it gets worse when your really on the bad spot - no way you can boot. When everything fails you might ask for something that gets you to the command prompt so that you can troubleshoot. Windows 7 features a tool that lets you create a bootable System Repair Disc. This is essentially a CD-bootable version of Windows that just includes the command prompt and a suite of system tools. To access the utility type system repair disc in the Start Menu search box.

Read more

How to Enable hibernation in Windows 7


In Windows XP enabling Hibernate option was a very easy task, but we have to follow a different approach to do the same job in Vista and Windows 7.

If you are not aware of Hibernate feature, Hibernation is a power-saving state designed primarily for laptops. While sleep puts your work and settings in memory and draws a small amount of power, hibernation puts your open documents and programs on your hard disk and then turns off your computer. Of all the power-saving states in Windows, hibernation uses the least amount of power. On a laptop, use hibernation when you know that you won’t use your laptop for an extended period and won’t have an opportunity to charge the battery 
during that time.

So if you are really going to use this feature then you need to enable it by doing a simple procedure as mentioned below:

1. Open Command Prompt with Administrator rights. To open Command Prompt, type CMD in Start menu and then hit Ctrl + Shift + Enter to open the Command Prompt with Admin rights.

2. Next, type the below command and hit enter:
powercfg /hibernate on

3. Type exit and hit enter to close the Command Prompt.
4. If you can’t see the Hibernate option in Start menu then do the following tasks:

A. Type Power Options in Start menu and hit enter.
B. In the left pane, open the link labeled “Change when the computer sleeps” and then open the link “Change advanced power settings”.

C. Under the Advanced Sleep options, expand the Sleep tree and turn off Hybrid Sleep.
D. Now go back to Start menu to see the new Hibernate entry.

Read more

How To Change IP Address


How To Change IP Address
How To: Change Your Ip In Less Then 1 Minute

1. Click on "Start" in the bottom left hand corner of screen
2. Click on "Run"
3. Type in "command" and hit ok

You should now be at an MSDOS prompt screen.

4. Type "ipconfig /release" just like that, and hit "enter"
5. Type "exit" and leave the prompt
6. Right-click on "Network Places" or "My Network Places" on your desktop.
7. Click on "properties"

You should now be on a screen with something titled "Local Area Connection", or something close to that, and, if you have a network hooked up, all of your other networks.

8. Right click on "Local Area Connection" and click "properties"
9. Double-click on the "Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)" from the list under the "General" tab
10. Click on "Use the following IP address" under the "General" tab
11. Create an IP address (It doesn't matter what it is. I just type 1 and 2 until i fill the area up).
12. Press "Tab" and it should automatically fill in the "Subnet Mask" section with default numbers.
13. Hit the "Ok" button here
14. Hit the "Ok" button again

You should now be back to the "Local Area Connection" screen.

15. Right-click back on "Local Area Connection" and go to properties again.
16. Go back to the "TCP/IP" settings
17. This time, select "Obtain an IP address automatically"
tongue.gif 18. Hit "Ok"
19. Hit "Ok" again
20. You now have a new IP address

With a little practice, you can easily get this process down to 15 seconds.

This only changes your dynamic IP address, not your ISP/IP address.

Read more

Rapid Share premium accounts Latest Issued


Rapid Share premium accounts Latest Issued


Read more

A Basic UNIX Overview


A Basic UNIX Overview


------------One of the most common operating systems in existance is Unix. Unix exists in many different flavors, from Berkeley BSD to AT&T System V to SunOs. Basic working knowledge of Unix is almost essential to a hacker, as it is the system a hacker is most likely to come across. If you intend to use the internet at all, or to do any serious exploration of Telenet, the ability to navigate through Unix is a necessity. (Unix is also the single most interesting system in existance: it's just fun to fuck with).

Unix Logins

----------- Most Unix logins look essentially the same. A general Unix login prompt looks something like this: connected to login: That first line is the system identifier. Although it's not at all essential to what you are doing, it's good to know what system you are attempting to log on to. The second line is what typically identifies the system you are on as Unix. Almost all Unix systems greet a user with the same prompt: login:. Well, there's not much to do in Unix from the outside, and Unix systems are typically fairly secure at this point. You may be able to obtain a list of users, or current users, by logging in as 'who', but other than that there are few functions available here. Unless you are on the internet, or have accounts specifically for the specific machine you are on, the only way on to the system is to try the default passwords. What are the default passwords? Unix systems come installed with certain passwords automatically. In addition, some accounts must exist on a system. One such account is 'root'. This user is the divine Kami of the Unix system... in short, an all access pass. Unfortunately, few systems allow root logins remotely, and even fewer leave 'root' unpassworded. Nevertheless, it's always worth a shot... try this: connected to login: root password: root invalid login login: well, nice try anyways... other possible passwords for root include 'sysadmin', 'sys', 'admin'... you get the idea. You may also want to try these passwords with a single digit appended (added, idiot) to them... meaning the password 'root' could be 'root1' or 'root2'. An interesting tip about passwords in general... many people that use passwords under 8 characters tend to add a digit or a non-alphanumeric character to the password. This is done in order to hinder guessing, and to stop password breakers (more on this later). In this case, you may want to try adding a space before root... or even an ascii 255 to the end. Fortunately, there is more than one default password in a unix system... a quick list: sys sys bin bin daemon daemon rje rje setup setup uucp uucp/nuucp/anonymous nuucp uucp/nuucp/anonymous mountfsys mountfsys.

In the System

------------- Ok, at this point, I'm going to assume you've gotten past the login... as painful as that may sound. Although Unix may be secure from the outside, without effort from the system administrators, the inside of the system is not. First off, you'll likely by asked for a terminal. vt100 serves your purposes sufficently, and it's typically the default, so hit enter. Now, hopefully, you have a prompt. There are many different types of unix prompts, some of which contain current directory information, some of which are just a single character. Just don't panic when my examples don't look exactly like what you've got on your screen. The first thing you *need* to do on the system is establish your tty paramters. As eldritch and arcane sounding as this term may seem, it's actually quite simple... you need to tell the system what keys are going to do what. The command to set these parameters is 'stty'. Watch: squinkyB ] stty erase ^h squinkyB ] There... that wasn't so bad, was it? Well, it's also pretty meaningless to you, unless you have the ascii table memorized and are pretty good at on-the-spot deduction. The tty erase parameters determines which key is to be used as a backspace. At times, this may already be set when you log in, or it may be set to a suitable alternate (such as delete). Most of the time the system will tell you when you log on if this is so. In this case, we've entered ^h in order to make the backspace key, appropriately enough, backspace. Another extremely important parameter is 'intr'. The 'intr' paramter tells the Unix system what you intend to use as a break character... you should have this set to ^c.

Getting Around
-------------- A good thing to remember about Unix is that it's alot like DOS. Files are laid out in directories just as in DOS... in fact, the only immediate difference in the directory structures is that Unix uses a forward slash ("/", moron!) instead of a backwards one. Also, the basic Unix directory navigation command is identical to DOS. In order to change directories, you use the command 'chdir', or 'cd'. A quick example: 1 /usr1/astoria ] cd .. 2 /usr ] Wala. That simple. Quick notes: ю cd / will take you to root. ю cd /*pathname* will take you to *pathname* ю cd home will take you to your home directory. You can make and delete your own directories with the mkdir/rmdir commands. Simply put, mkdir makes a subdirectory off of the current directory, and rmdir removes a subdirectory from the current subdirectory. Good to know if you plan to do a lot of file transfers. An important note about Unix directories, files, and concepts: Unix is a case-sensitive operating system. Thus, the files ю Spleen ю spleen ю SPLEEN ю SpLeEn are all different. This rule applies to directories and command line paramters, as well as most other Unix ideas. Another nice thing to know about Unix: Unix files are not subject to the normal DOS 8 character limit. Thus, you can have vast filenames, such as "this_file_ate_my_biscuit".

Some other important commands

----------------------------- First and foremost, you should know cp. cp is the basic Unix equivalent of the DOS COPY command. The command line for cp is identical to that of COPY. Next on the scale of cosmic import is cat. cat is the Unix equivalent of the DOS TYPE command, and once again, for simple file displaying, the command line is identical. Variations on the theme: pg: displayes a file page by page. Type "pg x filename", where x is a number of lines to display before pausing and filename is the file you wish to display. more: displays a file screen by screen. Stupid pet trick: You can use your cat to copy files, simply by using the directional operators. To copy a file from here to there using cat, simply type: % cat here this is the file here % cat there this is the file there % cat here > there % cat there this is the file here The operator ">" simply takes the output from the cat command and places is in the location specified after it. Another vital command to know is 'rm'. rm deletes a file from the system, in the same way DEL would on a DOS system. Not to much else to say. Critical in your navigation of a Unix system is the ls command. ls is DOS DIR on heroin. Simply type ls and you get a nice, neat list of files in the directory. DIR on controlled substances: There are a few command line parameters that you should know... foremost is l. ls -l gets you a list of files, and valuable information about each file, including permissions (more on that later), size, and linked files. Another useful command for long file lists is C. ls -C gets you a list of files in multiple columns, much the same as DIR /W would merit a double column report of all existing files. A quick reminder: ls -C is NOT the same as ls -c. Unix = case sensitive. Another good command to know, mv will move a file from directory to directory. For those of you without DOS 6.0 , mv simply copies a file to another directory and deletes the original. quick tip for files on the lam: if you want to rename a file (to protect the innocent), you need to mv a file to a different file name. A quick demo: # ls myfile # cat myfile this is my file # mv myfile my_other_file # ls my_other_file # cat my_other_file this is my file Another vastly important command is 'man'. In fact, man is probably one of the most important commands extant for a beginning user... it calls up the system's help files. To use man, simply type in 'man command', where command is a Unix command you seek to gain enlightenment regarding. It's a great way to gain an understanding of Unix commandline parameters. If you are interested in seeing who's been on of late, or just want a few names to try to hack, type 'who'. You get a quick list of users that have accessed the system lately. If you need to know who you are at this point, type 'whoami'. If you want to change your identity on the system, type 'su name' where name is an account on the system. It'll ask you for the account password, then, *presto*... instant transmogrification. A Caveat for smart alec hackers: Unix typically logs usage of the su command. While su may seem like a great opportunity to try to hack out passwords manually without worrying about the system hanging up after 3 attempts, it's typically not a good idea to do this, as it may alert the administrators to your presence. *Numero Uno on the list of commands NEVER to use on a Unix system: The 'passwd' command changes your password on a Unix system. Seems innocous enough, eh? Uh-uh. If your account is active, and there's a very strong chance that it either is or will be, there is no better way to lose the account than to change the password, only to have the legitimate user alert the sysadmins when he/she can't gain access to his/her normal account (well, there are better ways... you could simply mail the sysadmin and tell him you are trying to hack his grandmother's life support machine through your account). I've seen this single, quick command turn a extremely lax system into an ironclad security compound in less than a day. DONT-FUCK-WITH-IT. *Numero Dos on that same list: The 'mail' command reads and sends mail. So what? Well, unless your account is stable (and it isn't unless you either paid for it or killed the original owner in such a way that his body cannot claw it's way out of it's grave to it's keyboard), the user is more likely than not going to know if you read his mail. In addition, if you send mail out of the system (type 'mail', and a username/address; type in your message and end it with a ^d on it's own line), the response from your message will likewise alert the user to your presence.

System Spelunking

----------------- The first place you want to check out in the wild uncharted directory tree of your friendly neighborhood Unix system is the "/etc" directory. What's in it? The single most intensely important file on the system (besides a world writable root owned SUID file... but don't worry about that)... the passwd file. What is in the passwd file? ю a list of all accounts on the system ю a list of the passwords for these accounts ю a list of access levels for these accounts ю a list of the home directories for these accounts ю a list of information pertaining to these accounts. Why the hell the Unix designers decided this file should be world readable is beyond me. Be content to know that your standard everyday run-of-the-mill-lacking-in-certified-cosmic-power 'cat' command WILL display this file. As will pg and more. However, because most users don't have write permissions (more on that later) to the /etc directory, 'cat' is pretty much the only applicable command here. However, if you need to copy the file to your own directory (for whatever reason), just cat it there with the directional operator (>). The catch: Well, there are two catches here. First off, regardless of system security, if the passwords are in the file, they are encrypted. You can't decrypt them. Although you can get a list of accounts without passwords this way (just look for accounts with no entry in the password field), and a list of accounts that can't be logged onto remotely/at all (NO LOGIN), you can't get much else. Sucks, don't it? Notice I said 'if' the passwords are there. Some horrible, paranoid, draconian system administrators mutilate their passwd files in such a way that (*gasp*) the passwords don't show up. All you get is one cold, icy X staring at you from the bowels of Unix Shell Siberia, mocking you as you pull your hair out in frustration (sorry, but this is a sore spot with me). The kidnapped passwords reside in the shadow file in the /etc directory, available with your standard everyday run-of-the-mill-but-distinct-in-the-fact- that-only-root-level-accounts-can-use-it-to-this-extent 'cat' command. Well, if the passwords are encrypted, what good are they? By themselves, nothing. A account with a Unix encrypted password will get you no further than an account with no listed password at all. You can't even deduce the amount of characters in the password if it's encrypted. So what's the use? The Unix method of encrypting files is available to the public. It is also, to most mortals, irreversable. Essentially, this means you can encrypt a string of characters, but not decrypt it. Even the unix system itself doesn't decrypt the password when you log on... When you log on, the Unix system takes whatever you enter at the password prompt, encrypts it, and matches it to the entry in the passwd file. Thus, the Unix system never decrypts the password... it only compares it to a different encrypted string. While this may not sound too particularly useful at first, it is. There are programs that have been written to do the same thing on a personal computer... you supply it a list of passwords and a list of words to attempt to use as passwords (called dictionaries), and it spends the night encrypting dictionaries and matching them to password entries. By running a dictionary through a passwd file, on a typical system, you can usually get 10-20 accounts. Good personal computer examples of this program idea include Killer Cracker (the industry standard, so to speak) and CrackerJack (faster than Killer Cracker). Quick tips for CrackerJunkies with leech access at an H/P BBS: A standard dictionary will not uncover passwords protected with an appended digit or non-alphanumeric character. In order to get around this, you need only grab a program that processes the dictionary file to add that digit to each entry in the dictionary... although this takes longer, and you'll need to do it multiple times, you can typically get 10 more accounts just by adding a 1 to every entry. Files and directories in Unix are characterized further by their permissions. Permissions are a standard system of who gets access to a specific function of that file or directory. Standard permissions include read, write, and execute. You can get a list of permissions by typing 'ls -l'. The first field in the listing contains the permissions, grouped as follows:

Owner group world

-------------------- rwx rwx rwx (Not drawn to scale... in fact, it doesn't look anything like that). Essentially, as long as the letter is there, you have access to that facet of the file. If the letter is not there, you'll see a dash... meaning you don't have access to that function. An example: rwxr-x--x In this case, the owner of the file can Read the file, Write to the file, and eXecute the file; members of his group (a bunch of linked accounts) can Read the file, CANNOT Write to the file, and can eXecute the file; and the rest of the user population CANNOT Read or Write to the file, but CAN eXecute the file. rwx---rwx is a WORLD-READABLE, WORLD-WRITABLE, WORLD-EXECUTABLE file. This simply means that anyone can read, write, or execute the file. Another permission sometimes set to a file is the SUID bit. An SUID file contains a smallcase s in the user executable section of the permissions list... rws--x--x When you execute an SUID file, your user ID becomes that of the owner of the file. While this may not look to important at first, by now you should know that no really important super elite hacker concept does. Take a look at this: rwsr-x--x Synopsis? It's a world executable SUID file. In essence, anyone can execute the file, and in doing so, become the owner of the file for the duration of the time that file is operating. However, this doesn't get you much, because you typically can't do anything while the programis running. More likely than not, it's calculating how many pencils it needs to order for school tomorrow or some other such drivel. The real power of the SUID file comes into play in this situation: rwsrwxrwx You won't see a lot of these, but when you do, look out. What you have here is a world writable SUID file... and a world writable program can be any program on the system you have read access to. Like, say, /bin/sh... the Unix shell... Quick command line example... 'diablo' is a root owned, world writable SUID file. I'm going to ignore the rest of the output of the ls command. #ls -l rwsrwxrwx... ...diablo #cat /bin/sh > diablo #diablo $ Oh, just so you know, the $ prompt denotes root access. Good deal, huh? In general, if you have right privs to an SUID file, copy it to your own directory and cat /bin/sh into it. You now have an instant gateway to the account of the owner of that file. If you want to find files that you can do this with, try this out: #find / -user root -perm -4000 -exec /bin/ls -al {} ";" This will give you a list of all root owned SUID files. If you want more info on the 'find' command, just 'man find'. Well, I'm overdo for an appointment on the IRC in #warez... so I'll cut off here. I hope I've been of assistance to you.

Read more

Basic Website XSS ?


What is XSS ??

XSS stands for "Cross Site Scripting", abbreviated "XSS" instead of "CSS" to avoid confusion with "Cascading Style Sheets", which is a language that formats the appearance of web pages. Cross Site Scripting is a type of code injection attack that exploits vulnerable or unsanitized scripts found in dynamic webpages. Once a vulnerability is found, an attacker can exploit it via text fields, such as those found in guestbooks, shoutboxes, or even login forms. XSS attacks range from defacement to malicious code and cookieloggers. Because of its simple architecture, XSS attacks are probably the most popular form of hacking directed against websites.

How to find a vulnerable site ??

To find a vulnerable website, simply look in google.

How to test for an XSS vulnerability ??

To test for an XSS vulnerability, you simply input a pop-up script in a text field of a website, preferably a search bar. To do this, type one the following codes in the website's search bar, you should get a pop-up saying "XSS", or whatever text you input.

PHP Code:


There are a lot of scripts that will work, these are just a few of them. Also, It is recommended that you substitute "XSS" or (88,83,83)) with other characters, as some site sanitize the text "XSS" from their search bars.

How to exploit XSS vulnerabilities ??

Now that you've discovered the vulnerability you can attempt to attack the website.

Defacement :-

In an XSS vulnerable website, you can execute all or almost any html or javascript in an text field such as a guestbook. Type your code in where the username field is(because the message field usually blocks html and javascript). If the guestbook requires image verification/captcha then fill it in. If the site requires you fill in a email, then type a fake one.

Here are some things that u can do :-

Insert your deface pic. :-
PHP Code:

Redirect to your deface pic. :-
PHP Code:

Pop-up Pic
PHP Code: "your image url here!" )

Embed videos or flash :-
PHP Code:

I take no responsability for the things you do with this tutorial. It's all up to you! If you don't use one or more proxies then u might get in jail

Read more

How To Trace IP Address Of E-mail Sender


How To Trace IP Address Of E-mail Sender
Find ip address of the sender of a mail in Gmail, Yahoo and Hotmail.

When you receive an email, you receive more than just the message. The email comes with headers that carry important information that can tell where the email was sent from and possibly who sent it. For that, you would need to find the IP address of the sender. The tutorial below can help you find the IP address of the sender. Note that this will not work if the sender uses anonymous proxy servers.

Finding IP address in Gmail

1. Log into your Gmail account with your username and password.
2. Open the mail.
3. To display the headers,
* Click on More options corresponding to that thread. You should get a bunch of links.
* Click on Show original
4. You should get headers like this:
Gmail headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by a few hostnames and an IP address between square brackets. In this case, it is
That is be the IP address of the sender!
5. Track the IP address of the sender

Finding IP address in Yahoo! Mail

1. Log into your Yahoo! mail with your username and password.
2. Click on Inbox or whichever folder you have stored your mail.
3. Open the mail.
4. If you do not see the headers above the mail message, your headers are not displayed. To display the headers,
* Click on Options on the top-right corner
* In the Mail Options page, click on General Preferences
* Scroll down to Messages where you have the Headers option
* Make sure that Show all headers on incoming messages is selected
* Click on the Save button
* Go back to the mails and open that mail
5. You should see similar headers like this:
Yahoo! headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by the IP address between square brackets [ ]. Here, it is
That is be the IP address of the sender!
6. Track the IP address of the sender

Finding IP address in Hotmail

1. Log into your Hotmail account with your username and password.
2. Click on the Mail tab on the top.
3. Open the mail.
4. If you do not see the headers above the mail message, your headers are not displayed. To display the headers,
* Click on Options on the top-right corner
* In the Mail Options page, click on Mail Display Settings
* In Message Headers, make sure Advanced option is checked
* Click on Ok button
* Go back to the mails and open that mail
5. If you find a header with X-Originating-IP: followed by an IP address, that is the sender's IP address
Hotmail headers : name ,In this case the IP address of the sender is []. Jump to step 9.
6. If you find a header with Received: from followed by a Gmail proxy like this
Hotmail headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by IP address within square brackets[].
In this case, the IP address of the sender is []. Jump to step 9.
7. Or else if you have headers like this
Hotmail headers : name
Look for Received: from followed by IP address within square brackets[].
In this case, the IP address of the sender is [] (Spam mail). Jump to step 9.
8. * If you have multiple Received: from headers, eliminate the ones that have
9. Track the IP address of the sender

Read more

How To Learn Maya 6 Tutorials


How To Learn Maya 6 Tutorials

Read more